Saudi Arabia's explanation has been questioned by leaders in the USA and Europe.
Erdogan said a team of 15 Saudis flew to Istanbul early in the morning on October 2, including a forensic expert and intelligence officers.
Saudi Arabia is under mounting global pressure with several countries accusing it of a cover-up.
State television TRT reported that Turkish crime scene investigators inspected the vehicle on Tuesday (Wednesday NZ time) for possible evidence in the slaying of the Saudi journalist.
On Tuesday, Trudeau seemed reluctant to cancel the deal with Saudi Arabia, billed as the largest arms deal in Canadian history.
"A person familiar with the audio said it was "compelling" and could put more pressure on the United States to hold Saudi Arabia accountable for the death of Khashoggi", the newspaper reported.
"To blame such an incident on...security and intelligence members would not satisfy us or the worldwide community", Erdogan said in a speech to parliament.More news: Modi, Abe build ties amid concerns
U.S. President Donald Trump also has said he is not satisfied with the explanations from Saudi Arabia about the death.
Khashoggi, known for his criticism of Saudi policies, had been working as a columnist for The Washington Post. "But they will not succeed as long as there is a King named Salman and a Crown Prince named Mohammed bin Salman".
European officials had expressed skepticism of Saudi's fistfight claims. I believe it is painful for every human in the world.
Before Khashoggi's murder, "it would have been unthinkable that in this day and age we would witness such an organised felony", Rouhani said.
Separately, Rouhani said that Iran would "defeat" new American sanctions targeting its oil sector, according to the IRIB news agency.
He, however, acknowledged Turkey was still searching for answers to key questions, including who gave the order.
"We have to be able to work with our allies, and Saudi Arabia has I think been a very strong ally". Critics believe the arrests were a way to cover up the responsibility of Crown Prince Mohammed.